The Berlin-centered research network GraFOx merges activities in crystal growth, epitaxy, theory, and fundamental physical investigations towards one goal: to create and explore oxide systems for new generations of electronic devices.
With startup funding as a Leibniz ScienceCampus researchers from 7 institutions team up in their enthusiasm and expertise for oxides. GraFOx combines many unique research facilities, equally in experiment and theory, in more than 33 coordinated projects, involving 40 PIs and 25 PhD students.

Associate Partners

Prof. Norbert Esser of the Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften (ISAS) closely collaborates with Prof. Goldhahn by providing unique expertise in synchrotron-based ellipsometry in Berlin.

The workgroup “Chemistry of Inorganic Materials” at Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) lead by Prof. Anjana Devi develops and provides the precursors for MOCVD of complex oxides at IKZ.

At the Technische Universität Berlin (TUB) Dr. Susi Lindner and the group of Prof. Markus R. Wagner support GraFOx with their strong expertise in scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy, respectively.

Based on their large activity on the gas sensing applications of semiconducting oxides, the group of Prof. Udo Weimar and Dr. Nicolae Barsan at Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen (UT) collaborates towards the practical application of the oxides investigated in GraFOx.

Scientific Background

Oxides are among the materials with the widest tunability of physical properties. Spanning insulators, semiconductors, metallic conductors and superconductors, magnetic materials, ferro-/antiferro- and other dielectrics, oxides are a materials class with high potential for a new generation of electronic devices. Particularly in energy applications, they are expected to exhibit outstanding performance.

Yet, control of oxides is in its infancy. Compared to more conventional semiconductors, the strong ionicity of bonds in oxides poses big challenges, such as a variety of crystal phases, non-stoichiometry and defects. Harnessing oxides for electronic devices, like the quest to control GaN, therefore requires both, the growth of well-defined material and a broad understanding of device-relevant physical properties.

Research Highlights

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  • Structural defects and charge carrier mobility in homoepitaxial layers grown on (100) plane of β-Ga2O3 
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  • Suboxide-related kinetics, etching, thermodynamics, and catalysis governing the MBE of Ga2O3, In2O3, SnO2 and (In,Ga)2O3 
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  • Ga2O3-based devices 
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  • Faceting and step flow growth in the homoepitaxy of Ga2O3 
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  • Barium stannate based heterostructures for electronic applications 
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  • β-Ga2O3 fundamental properties and their anisotropy 
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  • Joint computational and experimental examination of the phase stability of (In xGa1–x)2O3 ternary alloys 
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  • Anisotropy of optical and electrical properties of rutile SnO2 
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  • Finding the right balance for SnO growth enables the realization of all-oxide SnO/Ga2O3 vertical pnheterojunction diodes 
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Further Highlights